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33rd Annual Scientific Meeting proceedings

Stream: LA   |   Session: Camelid surgery
Date/Time: 08-07-2023 (11:30 - 12:00)   |   Location: Conference Hall Complex B
Wound Management in Dromedary Camels
Zabady MK
Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

The normal habitat of dromedary camel is the desert and it has several adaptive features for these conditions, so it is named ship of the desert. In spite of the wide and large free area of the desert, nevertheless it is exposed to various types of distresses causing wounds and injuries. Camel wounds arises from biting of wild animals or other animals during the rut season. Sharp objects such as nails or wires in the desert or thorny plants may penetrate the foot pad, eye or abdominal region. In addition to car accidents that occur when camels cross the road to move from one place to another. Moreover, tying the feet with ropes may cause stumbling and camel injuries.

The most common sites for camel wounds are feet, head, chest pad, abdomen, scrotum and prepuce. Types of wounds recorded in camels are punctured, granulating, ulcerating, incised /lacerated, perforating, abrasions, cracking and hematoma.

Clinical signs of camel wounds
Punctured wounds are mainly observed in camel foot and the offending object may be present or removed by the owner. It leads to swelling and abscess formation in the digit, fracture of phalanges, osteitis of the third phalanx, and septic arthritis in the interphalangeal joints. Lameness is often severe, particularly after elapse of 5-7 days. The animals cannot put weight on their lame limb and keep it in advanced position during standing or may walk on three limbs.

Granulating wounds are noticed at the foot, head and abdomen. They are characterized by the presence of unhealthy granulation, septic exudates and Myiasis. Furthermore, the septic exudates may reach the bone causing lysis and septic osteitis.

Ulcerating wounds are recorded at the foot and chest pads and displayed as a circumscribed loss of the keratinized layer exposing the underlying sensitive tissues.

Perforating wounds is less frequently occur than other types of wounds. It is recorded in the foot beside the toe nail and in the abdomen.

Incised / lacerated wounds are encountered at the eyelids and abdominal wall. Abrasions and cracks are noticed at the foot pad. Avery huge hematoma is recorded at the lateral abdominal wall.

Examination of wounds
The wounded area is thoroughly examined via visual inspection and palpation. Probing is also applied to measure the depth and to identify the direction of punctured wounds. Radiographic examination is carried out to assess the integrity of bony structures.

Management of old wounds
Camels with wounds at different locations are sedated using Xylazine hydrochloride 2% (0.2 mg/kg BW IV). The wound is covered with moist sterile compress and the area around the wound is clipped, shaved and cleaned thoroughly. Plastic tourniquet is applied on the mid of metacarpal/metatarsal area (in case of foot wounds). Lidocaine 2% 10-15 ml is injected intravenously in a prominent vein under tourniquet or infiltrated 1ml/1cm3 subcutaneously along the margins of the wound to provide sufficient analgesia. The excess granulation tissue is excised using scalpel and all ominous tissues 0.5 cm under skin level are removed. In case of septic ulcerating wound, debridement is performed for removal of foreign materials, detachment of the horny pad and all devitalized tissues. To deal with punctured wounds, wooden hoof knife is used for removal of all dead necrotic tissues after insertion of probe to assess the depth and direction of the wound. A large syringe (50ml) is used to irrigate the wound with diluted 1:10 povidone-iodine solution. The spray penetrated the recesses of the wound and flushed out all the loose and devitalized tissues.  Hemorrhage is controlled using thermocautery unit. The wound area is covered with 1- 2g chlortetracycline hydrochloride powder reaching the entire depth of the wound. The wound is insufflated with Negavon or woundjat powder in cases showing myiasis. Wounds are covered with sterile sponges and fixed by adhesive tape.  A firm cotton bandage covering the area is applied in case of foot wounds.

Wounds at the foot nail and associated with different degrees of lysis to the 3rd or 2nd phalanges are managed by amputation of the digit between 1st and 2nd or 2nd and 3rd phalanges.  

Wounds at the prepuce which cause phimosis due to narrowing of the preputial orifice are treated by excision of fibrosis at the preputial orifice.

Laceration arises at the perineum following dystocia in she-camel is managed using the modified Goetz one-stage repair technique.   

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